A young rosy wolf snail, Euglandina rosea (Férussac, 1821), feeding on another snail. Shell slender, attenuate. Laevapex is a North American genus. Shell ovate or subcircular in shape, smooth or with radial sculpture localized anteriorly. 180-182). 1934. Review of the Planorbidae of Florida with notes on other members of the family. Aperture elliptical and loosely attached to or slightly separated from preceding whorl; 4.5-4.9 whorls. Mating requires high humidity, and often occurs following precipitation. (Mihalcik & Thompson, 2002). Adult shell about 4-5 mm high; umbilicus wide; columellar margin of the aperture concave in outline (Fig. Spire raised and flat-topped. 1978). After the snails have been in the fixative for a few minutes to several hours, depending upon their sizes, they should be rinsed in water and transferred to 70 percent ethyl alcohol. Transparent white (Fig. Spiral or costate sculpture usually present. Shell generally thin but strong; whorls of spire strongly convex with deep suture (Figs. Most species are disc-shaped or planular, as is implied by the name PLANORBIDAE. Marisa cornuaurietus (Fig. Lioplax pilsbryi pilsbryi A study conducted in Brazil (Medeiros et al. Teardrop Snail Size smaller than last species, seldom exceeding 10 mm in width (Figs.194-196). Shell larger, 2.8-4.6 mm long; adults with 4.0-4.9 whorls; spire longer, 0.9-1.3 times height of aperture; superior tubercles not arranged in oblique longitudinal series. It is brown or yellowish brown in color, sometimes with brown streaks radiating from the center. Useful sources of information on terrestrial snail pests include Barker (2001, 2002) for general information, Hubricht (1985) for distribution, Pilsbry (1940) for identification, and the www.jaxshells.org Web site for images and regional information. 1992. Land Snails. Spilochlamys gravis Although varied in appearance, this snail typically is light brown, with dark brown stripes. 172). Shell usually with raised spiral threads around periphery, frequently the uppermost thread has conical or triangular spines (Figs. Mesa Rams-horn Figure 4. Apex behind center of shell. 24, 27). (Pfeiffer, 1839). Grass snails are tiny snails with a "helix shaped" shell (G eyer 1927) with a diameter of less than 3 mm. 136, 138). Shell moderately elevated, over 0.25 times as high as long. Are Snails Bad for Lawn Trees & Shrubs?. Subspecies bear the same name as the nominate subspecies, as is consistent with the standard used by the American Fisheries Society for fishes, and by other societies for other classes of animals. shell with 3.9-4.2 whorls (Fig. The greatest diversity of genera and species is in the Indo-Australian region. Shell without conical spines, although spiral threads may be present. 130). Figure 3. Tarebia granifera 170, 173). Umbilicus open, although very narrow in some species; occasionally closed. Shell usually opaque in adults, with a dark red callus inside the lip (Fig. In both species, the ridge may be dark brown to almost black. Adult shell without lamella on interior walls of aperture. The Florida dome snails are small, measuring 5–10 mm in diameter, with a height of 5–7 mm. Shell conical, spire moderatly high. Apex subacute, distinctly eccentric to the right of the midline. (Lea, 1862). Figure 14. At maturity, it can attain a length of nearly 20 cm and a diameter of 13 cm. Adult shell small, less than 3 mm high; umbilicus narrow but not occluded by the columellar lip; columellar margin of the aperture weakly concave (Fig. Females with an egg-laying groove or sinus on right side of foot; eggs deposited on substrate. The family contains numerous genera and species, some of which are important medically as intermediate hosts for trematode parasites. Penis without a conspicuously enlarged papilla near right base, although other papillae usually are present. Work through the questions, each time choosing the characteristic that best matches your snail from the two choices. Accessory crest absent. Most molluscs live in the water, but slugs and snails … Newborn young about 4.5 mm in diameter (this can be determined by removing juveniles from brood pouch). Narrowly umbilicate. Aquatic; moves by gliding motion. Slugs and snails are closely related. Shell glossy. Umbilicus open. Aperture never with a septum. Shell planispiral, adults large, 35-50 mm (Figs. 110). Penis with 4-6 papillae along right margin (Fig. Many formulations of molluscicide are available for purchase, but nearly all are bait products that contain toxicants. Haitia pomilia pomilia In fact, the bodies of snails are mostly symmetrical, but their shells tend to be asymmetrical. Shell shape characteristics that are used as a rough guide to identification of Florida applesnails follow. Penis with invaginated cave-like pit within U-shaped superior tubercles. Amnicola dalli. It deposits its eggs in shallow holes in the soil, normally in clusters of 20–70 eggs. 32). Pseudotryonia brevissimus The shells have 5–6 whorls and possess an operculum (a hard covering of the shell opening). Females with live embryos in brood pouch in mantle; males with right eye stalk modified as a penis. Some of these options are outlined below. Mantle richly marked with reddish-brown blotches and spots. Length of shell about 2.2-2.8 mm long (Fig. (Clench & Turner, 1956). Alligator Siltsnail They look like Heliacus to me. It is good practice to apply baits after a site is watered or irrigated, as this stimulates mollusc activity, increasing the likelihood that baits will be eaten. Sculpture above periphery of whorls consisting of nodes arranged in vertical and spiral rows. Excentric Ancylid Shell usually small to medium (2-25 mm). (Thompson, 2000). Various species of Cipangopaludina also have been introduced from the Orient into North America. Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida. Among the most interesting of the molluscs are the snails. Malacological Review, Suppl. Apex with fine radial striations (Figs. Shell with about 4.5-5.0 whorls; about 3.0-4.8 mm long (Fig. The fixative may damage the shell, but that is unimportant for anatomical purposes. 164, 167). The rosy wolf snail, Euglandina rosea (Férussac, 1821), fully extended. Egg (right) and newly hatched snail (left) of the giant African land snail, Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica Férussac, 1821). The molluscan family Planorbidae. Marginal teeth of radula spatulate and bearing 8-10 weakly differentiated cusps. Note the brown stripe located centrally on the outer whorl; this character is usually present on these snails. Female oviparous, never with embryos in uterus. Outer lip continuously rounded (Figs. Operculum spiral, consisting of two or more rapidly increasing whorls (Fig. Florida Applesnail (Thompson, 1968). (Lea, 1858). Shell sculptured with very fine, uniformly spaced axial threads (Figs.168-170). Shell planular or disc-shaped; spire flat when raised above succeeding whorls (Figs. Rotund Mysterysnail Thompson, F. G. 1969. Some species that are endemic to Florida springs live in environments with nearly constant temperatures and apparently reproduce continuously throughout the year. In studies conducted in Costa Rica (Barrientos 1998, 2000), this species was most abundant where there was a deep layer of organic matter on the soil, abundant herbaceous vegetation, and abundant moisture. The radula is then thoroughly rinsed in distilled water, stained, and mounted on a microscope slide. They will travel long distances, especially during rainy evenings, and can frequently be found inactive, but clinging to elevated structures, in the daytime. 199). Shell with darker colored spiral chords that may be smooth or wavy. (Haldeman, 1841). Adult size small, about 12-16 mm long (Fig. The umbilicus (cone-shaped depression at center of the whorls) is pronounced when viewed from below. Shell large, 80-100 mm wide. Deliberately introduced to the Miami area from Cuba in the early 1900s, it now is the most abundant of the large terrestrial snails in southern Florida but can be found as far north as Tampa. They occur in both aquatic (marine and fresh-water) and terrestrial environmen… Slough Hydrobe 142). Figure 13. Little is known about these animals, and diverse opinions exist as to how many species are recognizable. Base of shell usually without spiral band. Choctawhatchee Elimia Marisa similarly feeds on aquatic plants, but is quite omnivorous, and will feed on decaying vegetation and aquatic animals as well. Penis with papillae along right margin (Figs. Aperture ovate; broadly attached to preceding whorl. Studies on West Indian mollusks: the genus. A bizarre video shows millions of snails taking over a popular beach in St. Petersburg Florida. Average length about 4 mm (Figs. Inside of lip with or without a reddish callus but callus never dark red in color. 100). Aphaostracon xynoelictus Whorls uniformly rounded, not flattened above (Fig.144). Base of shell open when viewed from below, showing most of preceding whorl due to curved basal lip (Fig. 134). Shell dark brown. Shell nearly smooth, sculptured with irregularly spaced incremental striations (Figs. Generally with distinct axial and spiral striations. 201, 207). Spiketopped Applesnail In Puerto Rico, they are believed to replace Biomphalaria snails, which are intermediate host for the disease Schistosomiasis (Radke et al. However, a recent molecular study (Rawlings et al. Nuclear whorl 0.41 mm in diameter transverse to initial suture. Campeloma floridense It is readily transported with potted plants, so it is a quarantine issue. (Fig. Shell very thin, fragile, transparent. Umbilicus of shell closed. A review of the recent freshwater limpet snails of North America. Floridobia vanhyningi Planorbella scalaris Ecology of the land snails, Carvalho CM, Bessa ECA, D'Ávila S. 2008. Like most snails, activity increases after rainfall (Gammon 1943). Shell globose with a relatively depressed spire; about 1.0- 1.2 times as high as wide. Dorsl surface of penis with a few elongate superior tubercles that form a weakly defined U-shaped pattern. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of North America. Live field samples should be divided into two groups, one to be preserved for shells, the other to be preserved for anatomical specimens. It also was the first adequately illustrated faunal summary published on the Southeast. Acanthinulas also under dead wood and in the duff in woody places. 159-161). (Pilsbry, 1889). Whorls globose, with a deeply impressed suture. It secretes an epiphragm during such periods. It is a serious pest of rice in Southeast Asia. Reduce their population by trying to manage their living conditions. Parapical crest of verge greatly enlarged. Size small I I to medium, 8-12 mm in length. i-xxxvi, 1-530 pls. Peristome complete around aperture. Thus, snails may copulate and inseminate each other simultaneously, and even self-fertilization may occur. Adults about 6-8 mm wide (Figs. Penis filament black. Aperture elliptical in shape; spire slenderer and slightly convex in outline; suture moderately impressed suture; parapical crest reduced in size. About 4.2-4.6 weakly arched whorls with a weakly impressed suture. It can produce a thin epiphragm. 2008). Biomphalaria havanensis Smooth-ribbed Hydrobe Ferrissia is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. 1963. (Thompson, 1968). The focus on most investigations was on rivers north of Florida, and little attention was given to the Florida fauna. Hatia pomilia hendersoni Other bait formulations contain boric acid as a toxicant; while also safer than metaldehyde, boric acid seems to be much less effective than iron phosphate (Capinera, unpublished). Radial riblets on entire surface of shell except apex. Outer lip partially flattened in adults. Occasionally it may be necessary to turn to other information sources to determine identifications with a greater degree of certainty.. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. The following key is modified from Basch (1963). 1997). Whorls of spire weakly scalariform, causing the suture to be deeply incised. These products are safe to use around pets, humans, fish, birds, beneficial insects, and mammals. Prepared by Fred G. Thompson, Fmr. Vernacular manes used in this manual are consistent with the standardized list of vernacular names for North American freshwater snails recently established by the American Fisheries Society (Turgeon, et al, 1998). The umbilicus is pronounced. Black-crested Elimia) Elimia albanyensis (Lea, 1864). Female shell about 4-6 mm long (Figs. Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida. Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida. Formalin will corrode the shell and thereby eliminate color, delicate sculpture, and the periostracum — the thin “skin” coating present on most shells. Revista de Biologia Trpical, 51 (supplement): 1-299. (The penis is normally recurved into the mantle cavity, except during mating. Thiarids are ecologically significant because they tend to replace native snails where they are introduced and because of their abundance. Marisa has a planorpoid (flattened) shell form, and usually bears several dark spiral stripes on the whorls. 197, 204). The biology of terrestrial molluscs. (Lea, 1842). Floridobia wekiwae Mantle cavity with gill on dorsal surface. (Lamark, 1822). Shell sculptured with fine spiral threads. The aquatic snail fauna of the southeastern United States has long been recognized for its richness and diversity. Snails also have a breathing pore (pneumostome), which they can open and close, and which leads into the lung for gas exchange. Nautilus, 32: 71. Vertical sculpture reduced to irregularly spaced and uneven growth striations or low undulating ribs. Body whorl rounded (Fig. 94). Whorls 3.8-4.3. Operculum tightly coiled with four slowly expanding whorls (Figs. Two species occur in Florida. Many North American snail species were described near the turn of the century by Walker (1918). Crystal Siltsnail Aperture non-operculate; mantle cavity modified into a lung. Mechanical control. They are commonly found on live aquatic plant stems, dead leaves and sticks, and on bottles and cans. 1978. Slug pellets - risks and benefits in perspective. Their biology is largely unknown. The tentacles also are used for tasting and smelling. Few of the North American species have been studied to the extent that their taxonomy, geographic distributions, life histories, and ecology are documented. (Linnaeus, 1758). The shells should be rinsed frequently in tap water during the cleaning process to prevent etching by the acid. Slugs benefit from having shelter such as plant debris, so removal of boards, rubbish, piles of brush, and other debris will help limit slug numbers. Tryonia aequicostatus The VIVIPARINAE is widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia and eastern North America. A preliminary revision of Florida Lioplax (Gastropoda: Viviparidae), with a description of Lioplax talquinensis n.sp. Apex very short, only slightly raised above body whorl. Billions of small snails invade Florida beach News. However, this appears to be an over reduction, and several southern species were synonymized that appear worthy of recognition. The foot is a muscle, and is located ventrally. Whorls generally arched. Superficially, the milk snails may resemble the brown garden snail, Cornu aspersum (Müller, 1774) (also called Helix aspersa or Cantareus aspersus) an important pest snail in California and a quarantine issue for Florida. 200, 206). Aphaostracon asthenes Curator of Malacology. Critical Florida references are Thompson 1968, 1969, 2000; Thompson and Hershler, 1991, and Hershler and Thompson, 1992. Aperture enlarged (dilated). Adults with about 5 whorls, and 10-13 mm wide (Figs.177-179). Weak spiral striations present on top of growth striations (Figs. This is essential in the case of the Hydrobiidae. The only snail among the Pomacea applesnails in Florida that feeds on higher plants is Pomacea maculata. This will lead you to the final choice which identifies the snail. 1, 2). 99). Penis with a large, blade-like flagellum with continuous heavy dermal glands along each side (Figs. (Pfeiffer, 1839). (Fig. Spilochlamys conica 1928. Life history strategy of. (Aguayo, 1935). Apex suppressed to form a nearly flat plane with the peripheral angle (Figs.165-167). Spire usually about equal to or greater than height of aperture (Figs. Shell conical, olivaceous in color. The intercept of the aperture and adjacent whorl forms an acute angle (< 90), and the suture forms a deep indentation or channel: The intercept of the aperture and adjacent whorl forms nearly a right angle (90) at the suture, which lacks a deep indentation: The intercept of aperture and adjacent whorl forms only a slight angle (> 90) at the suture: Barker GM. 146). The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services has positively identified a population of Giant African land snails (GALS) in Miami-Dade County. 98). 1991). Fossaria cubensis Lip of adult shell usually with a thick crest externally and an internal callus. Thus, lack of calcium can impede growth and increase mortality in snails. Two-ridged Rams-horn Euglandina rosea, a common predator of snails and slugs in Florida. Accessory crest present. Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida. 111). (Thompson, 1968). Figure 12. They also inhabit nearly all ecosystems. 131). Axial striations distinct (Fig. Throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries malacologists made frequent field trips to explore river systems that were poorly known, and to revisit others that were renown for their rich and unique assemblages of species. In previous editions of the manual species of Floridobia were placed in the genus Cincinnatia. I can't get a picture because they are so tiny … The one and only Florida Tiny House Festival, November 21-22, 2020, at The Villages Polo Club in The Villages, Florida. Shell relatively thin. 67). Shell dull. Penis simple, elongate-conical, without papillae (Fig. Shell small, about 3.0-3.5 mm long; adult with 4.4-4.8 whorl; lower corner of aperture tending to be angulate with fluted channel (Fig. Aperture elliptical and usually attached to preceding whorl; 4.1-4.5 whorls present. Not all snails and slugs are pests, so if they’re not eating your plants, you don’t need to get rid of them in your organic garden. Columellar margin of aperture wide, flat-faced; apex of spire usually erroded; apical whorls, when present, with minute spiral striations; central tooth of radula with basocones located on ridged surface of tooth (Fig. Photograph by Bill Frank, Jacksonville Shell Club. Escambia Elimia 127); superior tubercles on penis arranged in oblique longitudinal series. Spiral sculpture faint or absent (Figs. The epiphragm is basically a mucus secretion, but sometimes contains calcium carbonate for reinforcement, making it hard and durable. Essentially identical shells occur repeatedly among unrelated genera and subfamilies. Outer lip of aperture strongly sinuous in lateral profile (Fig. Goodrich, C. 1942. Indented Duskysnail Snails and slugs are susceptible to traps (Olkowski et al. (C.B. Check under flower pots containing damaged plants, for example, as snails and slugs will not move far from their host plants. Pages 235-242. The snail's body contains all the physiological systems normally associated with higher animals, allowing ingestion, digestion, reproduction, locomotion, etc. Basch (1963) revised the classification and recognized only twelve species. The four exotic, nonindigenous Pomacea apple snail species are the island apple snail, channeled apple snail, spike-topped apple snail, and the titan apple snail. Aperture relatively large with fine, uneven, serrate denticles along parietal wall (Fig. 129). Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida. 126); accessory crest present on penis. 107, 108). Plane of aperture nearly vertical when viewed from the side. 58). Shell conical, thick, opaque. Only three widely distributed species occur in Florida. 141). Floridobia leptospira Over 500 species of Elimia have been described, most on the basis of shell characters. There are alternatives to metaldehyde. Average length about 5.5 mm (Figs. 4, 5). 15, 18). 180-193). Basal lip of peristome deeply receded. Apex nearly straight-sided or concave in outline. Photograph by Lyle Buss, University of Florida. The snails are tan colored, high and conical, with mature snails about ¾ to 1-inch long. Surface smooth, glossy, striations when present very weak. Control of aquatic weeds by the snail. 118). Tiny Garden Snails. Shell unicolor, never banded. Hebetancylus excentricus Males with penis at anterior right corner of mantle cavity. Pilsbry, H. A. Sides of spire concave in outline (Fig. Opercula should be glued to cotton plugs and replaced within the aperture. Penis with a very long slender flagellum that extends beyond terminal lobe. They display 6–7 whorls. Shell specimens should be cleaned and air-dried. Florida has only a few problem snails, mostly nonindigenous species that were introduced, either deliberately or accidentally. After a few years in storage glandular tissues in the female reproductive system deteriorate, and the process gradually spreads to destroy all but the terminal genital structures. J. Clench and Ruth P. Turner (1956) published a survey of the fauna from the Suwannee River west to the Escambia River. 5: 1-140. Diagram of typical snail shell showing major features. Photographs of young, intermediate, and mature Zachrysia snail shells showing change in shape as the snails mature. Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, i-xii, 1-324. However, it is absent from nearly all terrestrial snails. Terrestrial snails are hermaphrodites, which means that they contain both male and female organs.