It was usually cut by chainsaws (99.17%) and then transported mainly by canoes (97%). Login failed. The smoking time is also shorter than with a traditional oven, and working conditions (smoke, heat, and fumes) are better. (, Polidoro, B. They were also asked to quantify their oven capacity (the maximum number of kilograms of fish it could hold at one go) and the amount of wood needed to smoke this quantity. The amount of wood used was not significantly affected by a fish smoker’s experience (F = .728, df = 242, p = .865) in any community. The site is bordered to the north by Korup National Park, to the east by the city of Kumba, to the south by the Mungo river, and to the west by the Akwafe river, which forms the border between Cameroon and Nigeria (the Bakassi Peninsula). Studies in Benin, Togo, and Ivory coast (Abotchi, 2010; Chabi et al., 2014; Oulaï et al., 2007) have found, like us, that all fish smokers are women. Interviews were conducted in the fish smoker’s kitchens. On average and for fish smoking session, fish smokers use 50€ for wood. Pouokam (2011) found that 55% of wood came from continental forests, 23% from home gardens, and 5% from mangrove forests. Before beginning fieldwork, interviews were held with staff at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), who had a good knowledge of the study site, and were able to advise us on locations. Wood from mangrove forests is also used for housing material, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more. Wood quality is important in fish smoking. Wood chips are currently the most common way to introduce the smoke however pellets and bricks are gaining traction as they burn slower and their compact size allows one to pack the wood container more densely which reduces the rate of replacement. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. This dependence on red mangrove wood is due to its capacity to produce a great amount of heat energy (Ajonina & Usongo, 2001). Mangrove Charcoal is very hard and dense; it burns hotter and longer if compared to any other natural charcoal. Quality Charcoal & Smoking Supplies For Sale We stock quality charcoal ranging from Australian Made Mallee Root and Redgum to Imported Mangrove. Mangroves are important not only for the needs of local population, but because they have a significant influence on climate change as they sequester 5 to 6 times more carbon than conventional forests (Bilé, 2012). A wide variety of mangrove wood options are available to you, such as hard wood, soft wood, and coconut shell. In Cameroon, mangrove forests — made up of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs found between small streams and the sea — are in danger of becoming extinct because of the tendency of women to harvest them for smoking fish. On average, a traditional oven has a capacity of 528.5 kg of fish and consumes 1,204.5 kg of wood with a smoking time of 53 hr. During this first trip, nine fishing communities were identified (Figure 1) and invited to take part in the study. Ekomy, Bruneau, Mbega, and Aregba (2013), in their study of new concepts in the artisanal drying and smoking of food in Gabon, found that traditional longitudinal ovens have a ratio of 4.17 with a smoking time of 72 hr. Black mangrove flowers are a popular nectar source for honey bees, leading to the creation of "mangrove honey." The overexploitation of mangroves also threatens the sustainability of fish smoking activities. 1 0 obj Mangrove wood is harvested by local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. Chabi et al. The study found that 60.5% of fish smokers had at least 10 years of experience in smoking. Finally, my biggest thanks go to the fish smokers for their collaboration in this study. In their study of five communities in the same area, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), found that 83% of fish smokers used traditional ovens and 11% used metal ovens. More wood is used in Down Beach, and Eyengue, and particularly in Idenau, than in other communities. However, Pouokam (2011), who worked on the firewood sector in the Kribi fisheries, found that smokers used Sambi (Uapaca guineensis). Pouokam (2011) found that only 75% of fish smokers have preference for wood. uuid:41068db8-7c95-45a4-b75c-e44a9a443952 The purpose of this study was to address issues around fish smoking in the region through answering the following questions: Who are the fish smokers? Although wood smoking contributes to the physicochemical properties of fish, it does not always achieve fish smokers’ goals. Figure 4. (2015) also found that second wood choice by fish smoker was Azobe (25%), which is also the second choice found in our study (although at just 13%). The Best Charcoal for Barbecue and Grilling. These were selected according to their location (proximity to the IRAD)—as we needed to visit them 4 times a week. Ninety-three percent of our respondents purchase the wood they use, which is mainly red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa). Eight percent of fish smokers did not mention any second choice species because they used only one species for their activities. Our study found that with traditional ovens, smoking approximately 20 kg of fish cost 7€, about 3.7 times higher than the 2€ cited by Djessouho (2015) in his socioeconomic analysis of fish smoking in Benin. Mangrove Woods, Port Charlotte, Florida. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. As the population increases, coastal resources will continue to come under more and more pressure (Angoni et al., 2015). T tests were used in order to compare ovens yields and to compare the amount of wood consumed and the quantity of fish smoked. Only one respondent used a modern cinderblock oven (Figure 9(d)). Besides mangrove forests, this study revealed that 35% of wood comes from continental forests and 3% from home gardens. TSI Evaristus, senior lecturer at the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences and Dr. NGUEGUIM Jules, Head of station IRAD Limbe-Batoke, for their supervision of this work and their creative thinking and hard work during the establishment phase of the project. A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. There is an urgent need to address the sustainable management of this vital coastal ecosystem. Alternative Energy Sources Used by Fish Smokers. Fifteen percent of respondents did not use any alternative sources of energy saying that wood was sufficient for their physicochemical requirements. This difference could be due to the fact that the majority of fishermen in Cameroon are foreigners, unlike in Senegal, where the locals dominate the sector.